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Scholar Rocks
Ying Rock with Elm Base
Ying rock or Yingde rock is traditionally produced in Yingde, Guangdong province. These rocks are limestone with calcite deposits and commonly have white veins. In the Song dynasty, the rocks were often used as tributes.

The karstic landform in Yingde, with plenty of sunshine and rain, conditions the formation of rocks that are known for their "leanness (shou), wrinkling (zhou), openness (tou) and perforations (lou)". According to the theory of leanness, inner energy is allowed to reveal itself on the surface. The wrinkling surface texture is a natural extension of the structure. While leanness preserves the energy of change and the infinitely variable balance of forces, wrinkling texture brings vitality to the surface, enlarging into hollows and holes that give access back into its interior. The recesses invite the essential inward and outward movements through which structure and understanding are achieved.